Wednesday, November 23, 2011


Duamutef was a god of Egyptian mythology. He was the guardian of the East and one of the four Sons of Horus. Duamutef was represented as a mummified man with the head of a jackal. He was a funerary god. Duamutef protected the stomach of the deceased. The stomach was kept in a canopic jar after mummification. On the lids of these jars was a picture of the head of Duamutef. The goddess Neith protected him.

(Tuamutef, Golden Dawn, Thmoomathph)

Duamutef is one of the four sons of Horus, he was portrayed as a mummified jackal.

Horus (the elder) had numerous wives and children, and his 'four sons' were grouped together and generally said to be born of Isis. Duamutef was one. The other three were Imsety, Hapy and Qebehsenuef. They were born from a lotus flower and were solar gods associated with the creation. They were retrieved from the waters of Nun by Sobek on the orders of Re. It was believed that Anubis gave them the funerary duties of mummification, the Opening of the Mouth, the burial of Osiris and all men. Horus later made them protectors of the four cardinal points (north, south, east and west). In the Hall of Ma'at they sat on a lotus flower in front of Osiris. Most commonly, however, they were remembered as the protectors of the internal organs of the deceased. Each son protected an organ, and each son was protected by a goddess.

Duamutef's role was to protect the stomach of the deceased and was the guardian of the East. He was protected by the goddess Neith.

From: here
The four mummiform Sons of Horus were believed to be the sons of Horus (either Horus of Khem (Letopolis), Horus the Son of Isis or Horus the Elder), deities who protected the canopic jars that held internal organs of the deceased. From the First Intermediate Period until the end of the 18th Dynasty, the stoppers of the canopic jars were shaped like the face of the deceased. After this time, the stoppers started to be depicted as the four Sons of Horus.

These four gods, Friends of the King - Imsety, Hapy, Duamutef, and Qebehsenuef, the children of Horus of Khem - they tie the rope-ladder for this King, they make firm the wooden ladder for this King, they cause the King to mount up to Khepera when he comes into being in the eastern side of the sky.

-- Pyramid Text 2078

The four deities - Imsety, human headed protector of the liver, Hapy, baboon headed protector of the lungs, Duamutef, jackal headed protector of the stomach and Qebehsenuef, falcon headed protector of the intestines - were thought to have come out of a water lily that rose from the waters of Nun. The four mummiform gods were rescued by the crocodile god Sobek, by the orders of Ra, and Anubis gave them funerary duties. They also attend the judgement of the deceased in the Halls of Ma'ati where they stand before Osiris on a half opened blue water lily.


The jackal headed deity, Duamutef (Tuamutef), was shown as having a body wrapped up like a mummy. He was believed to protect the stomach, along with the goddess Nit, which was placed in the canopic jar, near the sarcophagus, on the east cardinal point. His name means "he who praises his mother" or "a star is his mother".

The Egyptians seem to sometimes confuse the jackal headed god with the falcon headed god, and so there are some images and canopic jars showing Duamutef with a falcon head.

SPEECH OF DUAMUTEF. Duamutef saith:- I am thy son Horus, who loveth thee. I come to avenge thee, O my father Osiris, upon him that did evil unto thee. I have set him under thy feet for ever and for ever, permanently, permanently, O Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, whose word is truth.

-- The Book of the Dead

From: here
Duamutef was one of the Four Sons of Horus and a protection god of the Canopic jars. Commonly he is said to be the son of the god Horus the Elder (Heru-ur) and the goddess Isis. There is another myth that describes Duamutef and his brothers as sons of Osiris. According to this myth they were born from a lotus blossom that arose from the primeval ocean.

The name Duamutef means "Who adores his mother".

First Duamutef was displayed as human wrapped in mummy bandages. Since the New Kingdom he is shown with the head of a jackal. In some cases his appearance is swapped with Qebehsenuef's so he has the head of a falcon and Qebehsenuef has the head of a jackal.

Duamutef usually was shown on Sarcophagus and as cap of canopic jars. Some images of the Judgement of heart show him staying together with his brothers in front of Osiris on a small lotus blossom.

The Pyramid texts name Duamutef as protection god of the deceased and their helper for the advance to heaven. The inscriptions of canopic jars and canpic chests he is called to protect from hunger and thirst.

According to the Egyptian Mythology he and his brothers where dedicated as protectors of the cardinal directions of the sky. Duamutef was dedicated to the east and he was also one of the star gods. For this reason Duamutef appears on astronomical documents to describe the direction where stars are placed.

From: Wiki
Duamutef (Tuamutef) - "Praising his mother" One of the "Four Sons of Heru" depicted in funerary literature as protecting the throne of Wesir in the Underworld, Duamutef is depicted as a jackal-headed mummified human on funerary furniture and especially the "canopic" jars which held the organs of the deceased (Duamutef's jar held the stomach). Later Hermetic philosophers would equate Duamutef with the element of earth because of his association with the funerary protectress Nit and the direction of north.


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