Saturday, November 19, 2011

Juno/Iuno



Hymn To Juno The Fumigation from Aromatics.

O Royal Juno of majestic mien,
Aerial-formed, divine, Jove's blessed queen,
throned in the bosom of caerulean air,
The race of mortals is thy constant care.
The cooling gales thy power alone inspires,
Which nourish life, which every life desire.
Mother of clouds and winds, from thee alone
Producing all things, mortal life is known:
All natures share thy temperament divine,
And universal sway alone is thine.
With sounding blasts of wind, the swelling sea
And rolling rivers roar, when shook by thee.
Come, blessed Goddess, famed almighty queen,
With aspect kind, rejoicing and serene.

Translated by Thomas Taylor.

Juno was the leading goddess of the Roman pantheon and the eponymous deity of the month of June. She was identified with Hera as the wife of the chief god. However, she did not assimilate the jealous and vindictive nature of Hera who was constantly scorned through Zeus' misadventures. As such she was much more popular than Hera, being the goddess of married life, marriage. As a goddess of child bearing she was called Juno Lucina, 'Juno who gives the light'.

Women celebrated Juno Mucina on two festivals. Her main festival, the Matronalia, was on March 1. Lambs and cattle were sacrificed in her honor at her feast. This was probably associated with her giving birth to her son Mars on this date. She was honored on the calends of every month (the first), and this probably relates her to the New Moon. Her other festival was the Nonae Caprotinae on July 7.

Juno was the tutelary goddess of Rome and the Empire as well as of several other towns in Italy. As such was honored as Juno Sospita ("Juno the Savior") and Juno Regina ("Juno the Queen"). As Sospita she was portrayed armed, though normally she was matronly and statuesque. In Roman myth she was a daughter of Saturn and Rhea. She was also the sister and wife of Jupiter, and by him was the mother of Juventas, Mars, and Vulcan. She was also part of an important Capitoline triad that included Jupiter and Minerva.

Juno was also the goddess of finances, being called Juno Moneta, 'Juno who Alerts (or Warns) the People'. "Money" and "mint" both derive from this epithet. Her temple on the Capitoline Hill dates from 344 BC, and later became a Roman mint.

Juno seems to have originally been a celestial goddess of fate. In addition to her role in childbearing, her identity as the goddess of finances, Juno Moneta, suggests an origin as a goddess of fate and fortune. Her totemic bird was the peacock, and the eyes of the tail feathers of this bird could symbolize the stars.

This identity is more plausible because guardian spirits of Roman women were called junos. This recalls other IE mythologies such as the Balts and Norse. In the former area Laume was the great fate-goddess while the laumes were guardian spirits. In the latter's mythology the fate-goddesses commonly called the Norns were also known as the Dises, which were also the names of the individual or family protective spirits. All these guardians were thought of as ancestor spirits with some connection to the greater goddesses controlling fate. We should consider that Juno probably was part of this tradition before her synchronization with Hera.

Even with these strong IE associations, however, Juno's name derives from an Etruscan goddess. Known as Uni, Unia, or Unu, this supreme Etruscan goddess of the cosmos was part of a triad that included the supreme sky-god Tinia, the equivalent of Jupiter, and Minrva. The early Etruscan rulers brought this triad to the Capitoline Hill, which continued in Roman times as Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva.

Uni also equated to the Tuscan childbirth-goddess Thalna, who was also referenced in a triad with Tinia and Minrva. Thalna was equated to the Greek primordial celestial goddess Eileithyia, who in turn was identified with the Roman childbirth-goddess Lucina, who in turn is often thought of as synonymous with Juno as Juno Lucina.

From: here
Protector and special counselor of the Roman state and queen of the gods. She is a daughter of Saturn and sister (but also the wife) of the chief god Jupiter and the mother of Juventas, Mars, and Vulcan. As the patron goddess of Rome and the Roman empire she was called Regina ("queen") and, together with Jupiter and Minerva, was worshipped as a triad on the Capitol (Juno Capitolina) in Rome.

As the Juno Moneta (she who warns) she guarded over the finances of the empire and had a temple on the Arx (one of two Capitoline hills), close to the Royal Mint. She was also worshipped in many other cities, where temples were built in her honor.

The primary feast of Juno Lucina, called the Matronalia, was celebrated on March 1. On this day, lambs and other cattle were sacrificed to her. Another festival took place on July 7 and was called Nonae Caprotinae ("The Nones of the Wild Fig"). The month of June was named after her.

She can be identified with the Greek goddess Hera and, like Hera, Juno was a majestical figure, wearing a diadem on the head. The peacock is her symbolic animal. A juno is also the protecting and guardian spirit of females.

From: here
Myths about the Roman Goddess Juno
Juno, daughter of Saturn and Rhea, was sister and wife of Jupiter. Though the poets agree that she came into the world at the same birth with her husband, yet they differ as to the place. Some fix her nativity at Argos, others at Samos, near the river Imbrasus. The latter opinion is, however, the more generally received. Samos, was highly honored, and received the name of Parthenia, from the consideration that so eminent a virgin as Juno was educated and dwelt there till her marriage.

As queen of heaven, Juno was conspicuous for her state. Her usual attendants were Terror, Boldness - Castor and Pollux, accompanied by fourteen nymphs; but her most inseparable adherent was Iris, who was always ready to be employed in her most important affairs: she acted as messenger to Juno, like Mercury to Jupiter. When Juno appeared as the majesty of heaven, with her sceptre and diadem beset with lilies and roses, her chariot was drawn by peacocks, birds sacred to her; for which reason, in her temple at Euboea, the emperor Adrian made her a most magnificent offering of a golden crown, a purple mantle, with an embroidery of silver, describing the marriage of Hercules and Hebe, and a large peacock, whose body was of gold, and his train of most valuable jewels. There never was a wife more jealous than Juno; and few who have had so much reason: on which account we find from Homer that the most absolute exertions of Jupiter were barely sufficient to preserve his authority.

There was none except Apollo whose worship was more solemn or extensive. The history of the prodigies she had wrought, and of the vengeance she had taken upon persons who had vied with, or slighted her, had so inspired the people with awe, that, when supposed to be angry, no means were omitted to mitigate her anger; and had Paris adjudged to her the prize of Beauty, the fate of Troy might have been suspended. In resentment of this judgment, and to wreak her vengeance on Paris, the house of Priam, and the Trojan race, she appears in the Iliad to be fully employed. Minerva is commissioned by her to hinder the Greeks from retreating; she quarrels with Jupiter; she goes to battle; cajoles Jupiter with the cestus of Venus; carries the orders of Jupiter to Apollo and Iris; consults the gods on the conflict between aeneas and Achilles; sends Vulcan to oppose Xanthus; overcomes Diana etc.

She is generally pictured like a matron, with a grave and majestic air, sometimes with a sceptre in her hand, and a veil on her head: she is represented also with a spear in her hand, and sometimes with a patera, as if she were about to sacrifice: on some medals she has a peacock at her feet, and sometimes holds the Palladium. Homer represents her in a chariot adorned with gems, having wheels of ebony, nails of silver, and horses with reins of gold, though more commonly her chariot is drawn by peacocks, her favourite birds. The most obvious and striking character of Juno, and that which we are apt to imbibe the most early of any, from the writings of Homer and Virgil, is that of an imperious and haughty wife. In both of these poets we find her much oftener scolding at Jupiter than caressing him, and in the tenth aeneid in particular, even in the council of the gods, we have a remarkable instance of this.

If, in searching out the meaning of this fable, we regard the account of Varro, we shall find, that by Juno was signified the earth; by Jupiter, the heavens; but if we believe the Stoics, by Juno is meant the air and its properties, and by Jupiter the ether: hence Homer supposes she was nourished by Oceanus and Tethys: that is, by the sea; and agreeable to this mythology, the poet makes her shout aloud in the army of the Greeks, the air being the cause of the sound.

From: here
Juno Lucina was an aspect of the goddess Juno associated with light and childbirth. Her name lucina probably comes from the Latin lucus (grove). Livy records that the grove on the Esquiline Hill in which a temple was dedicated to her in 375 B.C., is the origin of her name.

By the second century B.C., Juno Lucina was associated with childbirth because the name lucina was thought to have come from the Latin word lux (light). When a child was born it was said to have been "brought to light." Women who worshiped Juno Lucina had to untie knots and unbraid their hair lest these entanglements symbolically block delivery.

From: here
For the Matronalia (Matronales Feriae) Roman matrons and husbands honored the Juno Lucina aspect of Juno (Hera to the Greeks) by feasting on the 1st of March (the pre-Julian calendar's first of the year). In honor of Juno Lucina's temple foundation on the Esquiline, both matrons and husbands visited the temple, laid flower wreaths, and prayed for the protection of their marriages. Lambs and cattle were sacrificed to Juno Lucina, husbands gifted their wives, girls received presents from their lovers, and mistresses feasted their female slaves.

Judith Hallett, Classics Professor at the University of Maryland, describes the Matronalia as a love devotional from husband to wife. "On that day husbands would pray for the health of their wives and give them presents, and wives would dress up...." (Newswise Jan. 11, 2008.) Wives dressed up by dressing down: undoing their belts, leaving not a single knot in their robes, and loosening their braided hair, thereby encouraging Juno Lucina to loosen their wombs and bring forth their "children into the light" -- a phrase attributed to Juno Lucina as the patron goddess of childbirth.

The Matronalia gained added favor in the Roman calendar under Augustus' rule (27 B.C. - A.D.14). With a dwindling population, Augustus focused on the sanctity of marriage and procreation by creating new laws governing childbirth, adultery, and divorce. In his Fasti, Ovid (43 B.C. - A.D. 17) wrote of the Matronalia favorably in the apparent hope of regaining Augustus' goodwill after Augustus banished him to Tomi (see He on the map) in A.D. 8 for an uncertain offense possibly surrounding Ovid's writing of Ars Amatoria.

Bring the goddess flowers: the goddess loves flowering plants:
Garland your heads with fresh flowers, and say:
'You, Lucina, have given us the light of life': and say:
'You hear the prayer of women in childbirth.'
But let her who is with child, free her hair in prayer,
So the goddess may gently free her womb. (Kline Trans.)

In his Fasti, Ovid asks Mars, the war god, why he would allow the Matronalia to be celebrated during the Kalends of Mars' traditional month, March. Mars responds with two explanations, the first citing his son, Romulus, and Romulus' leading of the Roman's against the Sabines where the Romans raped the Sabine women, thereby begetting Roman/Sabine children and ultimately building the Roman populace. According to legend, the Sabine women, through the protection and guidance of Juno, mother goddess, were integral in Rome's rise. Mars then cites the founding of his mother Juno Lucina's temple on the Esquiline and confirms March as being the fruitful season and a just time to observe Juno's rites as mother goddess.

Just as Romans paid respect to Juno during March, in December the masters of the houses celebrated a similar feast called the Saturnalia. The men feasted their slaves much the same as their wives did during the Matronalia.

From: here
Juno (Latin pronunciation: [ˈjuːnoː]) was an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state. She is a daughter of Saturn and sister (but also the wife) of the chief god Jupiter and the mother of Mars and Vulcan. Juno also looked after the women of Rome.[1] Her Greek equivalent is Hera. As the patron goddess of Rome and the Roman Empire she was called Regina ("queen") and, together with Jupiter and Minerva, was worshipped as a triad on the Capitol (Juno Capitolina) in Rome.

Juno's own warlike aspect among the Romans is apparent in her attire. She often appeared sitting pictured with a peacock[2] armed and wearing a goatskin cloak. The traditional depiction of this warlike aspect was assimilated from the Greek goddess Athena, whose goatskin was called the 'aegis'.

Etymology

The name Iuno was once thought to be connected to Iove (Jove), originally as Diuno and Diove from *Diovona.[3] At the beginning of the 20th century, a derivation was proposed from iuven- (as in Latin iuvenis, "youth"), through a syncopated form iūn- (as in iūnix, "heifer," and iūnior, "younger"). This etymology became widely accepted after it was endorsed by Georg Wissowa.[4]

Iuuen- is related to Latin aevum and Greek aion (αιών) through a common Indo-European root referring to a concept of vital energy or "fertile time."[5] The iuvenis is he who has the fullness of vital force.[6] In some inscriptions Jupiter himself is called Iuuntus, and one of the epithets of Jupiter is Ioviste, a superlative form of iuuen- meaning "the youngest."[7] Iuventas, "Youth," was one of two deities who "refused" to leave the Capitol when the building of the new Temple of Capitoline Jove required the exauguration of deities who already occupied the site.[8] These data show the intrinsic relationship between Jupiter and Juno and a common founding idea in their theology.[citation needed]

Ancient etymologies associated Juno's name with iuvare, "to aid, benefit", and iuvenescendo, "rejuvenate," sometimes connecting it to the renewal of the new and waxing moon, perhaps implying the idea of a moon goddess.[9]

Roles and epithets

Juno's theology is one of the most complex and disputed issues in Roman religion. Even more than other major Roman deities, Juno held a large number of significant and diverse epithets, names and titles representing various aspects and roles of the goddess. In accordance with her central role as a goddess of marriage, these included Pronuba and Cinxia ("she who looses the bride's girdle"). However, other epithets of Juno have wider implications and are less thematically linked.

While her connexion with the idea of vital force, fulness of vital energy, eternal youthfulness is now generally acknowledged, the multiplicity and complexity of her personality have given rise to various and sometimes irreconcilible interpretations among modern scholars.

Juno is certainly the divine protectress of the community, who shows both a sovereign and a fertility character, often associated with a military one. She was present in many towns of ancient Italy: at Lanuvium as Sespeis Mater Regina, Laurentum, Tibur, Falerii, Veii as Regina, at Tibur and Falerii as Regina and Curitis, Tusculum and Norba as Lucina. She is also attested at Praeneste, Aricia, Ardea, Gabii. In five Latin towns a month was named after Juno (Aricia, Lanuvium, Laurentum, Praeneste, Tibur).[10] Outside Latium in Campania at Teanum she was Populona (she who increase the number of the people or, in K. Latte's understanding of the iuvenes, the army), in Umbria at Pisaurum Lucina, at Terventum in Samnium Regina, in at Pisarum Regina Matrona, at Aesernia in Samnium Regina Populona. In Rome she was since the most ancient times named Lucina, Mater and Regina. It is debated whether she was also known as Curitis before the evocatio of the Juno of Falerii: this though seems probable.[11]

Other epithets of hers that were in use at Rome include Moneta and Caprotina, Tutula, Fluonia or Fluviona, Februalis, the last ones associated with the rites of purification and fertility of February.[12]

Her various epithets thus show a complex of mutually interrelated functions that in the view of G. Dumezil and V. Basanoff can be traced back to the Indoeuropean trifunctional ideology: as Regina and Moneta she is a sovereign deity, as Sespeis, Curitis (spear holder) and Moneta (again) she is an armed protectress, as Mater and Curitis (again) she is a goddess of the fertility and wealth of the community in her association with the curiae.

The epithet Lucina[13] is particularly revealing since it reflects two interrelated aspects of the function of Juno: cyclical renewal of time in the waning and waxing of the moon and protection of delivery and birth (as she who brings to light the newborn as vigour, vital force). The ancient called her Covella in her function of helper in the labours of the new moon. The view that she was also a Moon goddess though is no longer accepted by scholars, as such a role belongs to Diana Lucifera: through her association with the moon she governed the feminine physiological functions, menstrual cycle and pregnancy: as a rule all lunar deities are deities of childbirth. These aspects of Juno mark the heavenly and worldly sides of her function. She is thus associated to all beginnings and hers are the kalendae of every month: at Laurentum she was known as Kalendaris Iuno (Juno of the Kalends).[14] At Rome on the Kalends of every month the pontifex minor invoked her, under the epithet Covella, when from the curia Calabra announced the date of the nonae.[15] On the same day the regina sacrorum sacrificed to Juno a white sow or lamb in the Regia. She is closely associated with Janus, the god of passages and beginnings who after her is often named Iunonius.

Some scholars view this concentration of multiple functions as a typical and structural feature of the goddess, inherent to her being an expression of the nature of femininity.[16] Other though prefer to dismiss her aspects of femininity and fertility[17] and stress only her quality of being the spirit of youthfulness, liveliness and strength, regardless of sexual connexions, which would then change according to circumstances: thus in men she incarnates the iuvenes, word often used to design soldiers, hence resulting in a tutelary deity of the sovereignty of peoples; in women capable of bearing children, from puberty on she oversees childbirth and marriage.[18] Thence she would be a poliad goddess related to politics, power and war. Other think her military and poliadic qualities arise from her being a fertility goddess who through her function of increasing the numbers of the community became also associated to political and military functions.[19]

Roman Juno Sospita and Lucina

Part of the following sections is based on the article by Geneviève Dury Moyaers and Marcel Renard "Aperçu critique des travaux relatifs au culte de Junon" in Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römische Welt 1981 p. 142-202.

The rites of the month of February and the Nonae Caprotinae of July 5 offer a depiction of the interrelated roles of the deity in the spheres of fertility, war, and regality.

February is a month of passages, of ends and beginnings, and as such the month of yearly universal purification and renewal. Ovid discusses the etymology of February at the beginning of book II of the Fasti, connecting it to februae, i.e. piamina, expiations.[20] As the most important time of passage of the year it implies risks for the community that have to be averted: the risk of contamination brought about by the contact with the underworld. Juno is then present and active at the three most prominent and relevant times of the month: on the kalendae (the first), with the celebration of the dies natalis birthday, of Juno Sospita on the Palatine, on 15th as Juno Lucina, inspirator and patroness of the Lupercalia and as Lucina and at its end, on March 1, as the protectress of the Matronae and of the preservation of marriages: this day united into one three festivals as it was the kalendae of the month, the beginning of the new year and the birthday of Romulus (as well as the date of the commemoration of the appeasing role of women during the war between Romans and Sabines).

Juno as Sospita (the Saviour) is thus the goddess that defends and protects the Romans since the first day in this perilous time of passage. On the same day recurred the celebration at the lucus grove of Helernus, which Dumezil thinks was a god of vegetation related to the cult of Carna/Crane, a nymph who may be an image of Juno Sospita.[21] The way this period should be dealt with came to a concrete acme on the 15 in the Lupercalia: the rite was directly suggested to the Roman couples by Juno Lucina in her lucus on the Esquiline,[22] and was considered to be a rite of periodical purification and fertility. It was perhaps also associated to the renewal of political power, as it may appear in the competition between the two groups of the Luperci, the Fabii and the Quinctii, mythically associated to Remus and Romulus. This political valence is illustrated by the episode of Julius Caesar who chose this occasion to enact the scene of his crowning by Mark Antony and by the fact that he created a third group, the Luperci Iulii.[23] This element would perhaps be the reason of the eulogy of Augustus at the beginning of book II of Ovid's Fasti: as the heir of Caesar he had indeed succeeded in his stepfather's plan. Here is then the sovereign function of Juno that is highlighted.

After Wissowa[24] many scholars have remarked the similarity between the Juno of the Lupercalia and the Juno of Lanuvium Seispes Mater Regina as both are associated with the goat, symbol of fertility. But in essence there is unity between fertility, regality and purification.[25] This unity is underlined by the role of Faunus in the aetiologic story told by Ovid and the symbolic relevance of the Lupercal:[26] asked by the Roman couples at her lucus how to overcome the sterility that ensued the abduction of the Sabine women, Juno answered through a murmuring of leaves "Italidas matres sacer hircus inito" "That a sacred ram cover the Italic mothers".[27]

February owes its name to the februae,[28] lustrations, and the goat whose hide is used to make the whips of the Luperci is named februum and amiculus Iunonis.[29] The Juno of this day bears the epithet of Februalis, Februata, Februa.[30] Februlis oversees the secundament of the placenta[31] and is strictly associated to Fluvonia, Fluonia, goddess who retains the blood inside the body during pregnancy.[32] While the protection of pregnancy is stressed by Duval, Palmer sees in Fluonia only the Juno of lustration in river water.[33] Ovid devotes an excursus to the lustrative function of river water in the same place in which he explains the etymology of February.[34]

A temple (aedes) of Juno Lucina was built in 375 BC[35] in the grove sacred to the goddess from early times.[36] It stood precisely on the Cispius near the sixth shrine of the Argei.[37] probably not far west of the church of S. Prassede, where inscriptions relating to her cult have been found.[38] The grove should have extended down the slope south of the temple.[39] As Servius Tullius ordered the gifts for the newborn to be placed in the treasury of the temple though it looks that another shrine stood there before 375 BC. In 190 BC the temple was struck by lightning, its gable and doors injured.[40] The annual festival of the Matronalia was celebrated here on March 1, day of the dedication of the temple.[41][42]

A temple to Iuno Sospita was vowed by consul C. Cornelius Cethegus in 197 BC and dedicated in 194. By 90 BC the temple had fallen into disrepute: in that year it was stained by episodes of prostitution and a bitch delivered her puppies right beneath the statue of the goddess.[43] By decree of the senate consul L. Iulius Caesar ordered its restoration.[44] In his poem Fasti Ovid states the temple of Juno Sospita had become dilapidated to the extent of being no longer discernible "because of the injuries of time":[45] this looks hardly possible as the restoration had happened no longer than a century earlier and relics of the temple exixst to-day.[46] It is thence plausible that an older temple of Juno Sospita existed in Rome within the pomerium, as Ovid says it was located near the temple of the Phrygian Mother (Cybele), which stood on the western corner of the Palatine. As a rule temples of foreign, imported gods stood without the pomerium.

Juno Caprotina

The alliance of the three aspects of Juno finds a strictly related parallel to the Lupercalia in the festival of the Nonae Caprotinae. On that day the Roman free and slave women picniced and had fun together near the site of the wildfig (caprificus): the custom implied runs, mock battles with fists and stones, obscene language and finally the sacrifice of a male goat to Juno Caprotina under a wildfig tree and with the using of its lymph.

This festival had a legendary aetiology in a particularly delicate episode of Roman history and also recurs at (or shortly after) a particular time of the year, that of the so called caprificatio when branches of wild fig trees were fastened to cultivated ones to promote insemination. The historical episode narrated by ancient sources concerns the siege of Rome by the Latin peoples that ensued the Gallic sack. The dictator of the Latins Livius Postumius from Fidenae would have requested the Roman senate that the matronae and daughters of the most prominent families be surrendered to the Latins as hostages. While the senate was debating the issue a slave girl, whose Greek name was Philotis and Latin Tutela or Tutula proposed that she together with other slave girls would render herself up to the enemy camp pretending to be the wives and daughters of the Roman families. Upon agreement of the senate, the women dressed up elegantly and wearing golden jewellery reached the Latin camp. There they seduced the Latins into fooling and drinking: after they had fallen asleep they stole their swords. Then Tutela gave the convened signal to the Romans brandishing an ignited branch after climbing on the wild fig (caprificus) and hidding the fire with her mantle. The Romans then irrupted into the Latin camp killing the enemies in their sleep. The women were rewarded with freedom and a dowry at public expenses.[47]

Dumezil in his Archaic Roman Religion had been unable to interpret the myth underlying this legendary event, later though he accepted the interpretation given by P. Drossart and published it in his Fêtes romaines d'été et d'automne, suivi par dix questions romaines in 1975 as Question IX.[48] In folklore the wild fig tree is universally associated with sex because of its fertilising power, the shape of its fruits and the white viscous juice of the tree.

Basanoff has argued that the legend not only alludes to sex and fertility in its association with wildfig and goat but is in fact a summary of sort of all the qualities of Juno. As Juno Sespeis of Lanuvium Juno Caprotina is a warrior, a fertiliser and a sovereign protectress. In fact the legend presents a heroine, Tutela, who is a slightly disguised representation of the goddess: the request of the Latin dictator would mask an attempted evocatio of the tutelary goddess of Rome. Tutela indeed shows regal, military and protective traits, apart from the sexual ones. Moreover according to Basanoff these too (breasts, milky juice, genitalia, present or symbolised in the fig and the goat) in general, and here in particular, have an inherently apotropaic value directly related to the nature of Juno. The occasion of the feria, shortly after the poplifugia, i.e. when the community is in its direst straits, needs the intervention of a divine tutelary goddess, a divine queen, since the king (divine or human) has failed to appear or has fled. Hence the customary battles under the wild figs, the scurrile language that bring together the second and third function. This festival would thus show a ritual that can prove the trifunctional nature of Juno.[49]

Other scholars[50] limit their interpretation of Caprotina to the sexual implications of the goat, the caprificus and the obscene words and plays of the festival.

Juno Curitis

Under this epithet Juno is attested in many places, notably at Falerii[51] and Tibur.[52] Dumezil remarked that Juno Curitis "is represented and invoked at Rome under conditions very close to those we know about for Juno Seispes of Lanuvium".[53] Martianus Capella states she must be invoked by those who are involved in war.[54] The hunt of the goat by stonethrowing at Falerii is described in Ovid Amores III 13, 16 ff. In fact the Juno Curritis of Falerii shows a complex articulated structure closely allied to the threefold Juno Seispes of Lanuvium.[55]

Ancient etymologies associated the epithet with Cures,[56] with the Sabine word for spear curis,[57] with currus cart,[58] with Quirites,[59] with the curiae, as king Titus Tatius dedicated a table to Juno in every curia, that Dionysius still saw.[60]

Modern scholars have proposed the town of Currium or Curria, Quirinus, *quir(i)s or *quiru, the Sabine word for spear and curia.[61] The *quiru- would design the sacred spear that gave the name to the primitive curiae. The discovery at Sulmona of a sanctuary of Hercules Curinus lends support to a Sabine origin of the epithet and of the cult of Juno in the curiae.[62] The spear could also be the celibataris hasta (bridal spear) that in the marriage ceremonies was used to comb the bridegroom's hair as a good omen.[63] Palmer views the rituals of the curiae devoted to her as a reminiscence of the origin of the curiae themselves in rites of evocatio, practise the Romans continued to use for Juno or her equivalent at later times as for Falerii, Veii and Carthage.[64] Juno Curitis would then be the evoked deity after her admission into the curiae.

Juno Curitis had a temple on the Campus Martius. Excavations in Largo di Torre Argentina have revealed four temple structures, one of whom (temple D or A) could be the temple of Juno Curitis. She shared her anniversary day with Juppiter Fulgur, who had an altar nearby.[65]

Juno Moneta

This Juno is placed by ancient sources in a warring context. Dumezil thinks the third, military, aspect of Juno is reflected in Juno Curitis and Moneta.[66] Palmer too sees in her a military aspect[67]

As for the etymology Cicero gives the verb monēre warn, hence the Warner. Palmer accepts Cicero's etymology as a possibility while adding mons mount, hill, verb e-mineo and noun monile referred to the Capitol, place of her cult. Also perhaps a cultic term or even, as in her temple were kept the Libri Lintei, monere would thence have the meaning of recording: Livius Andronicus identifies her as Mnemosyne.

Her dies natalis was on the kalendae of June. Her Temple on the summit of the Capitol was dedicted only in 348 BC by dictator L. Furius Camillus, presumably a son of the great Furius. Livy states he vowed the temple during a war against the Aurunci. Modern scholars agree that the origins of the cult and of the temple were much more ancient.[68] M. Guarducci considers her cult very ancient, identifying her with Mnemosyne as the Warner because of her presence near the auguraculum, her oracular character, her announcement of perils: she considers her as an introduction into Rome of the Hera of Cuma dating to the VIII century. L. A. Mac Kay considers the goddess more ancient than her etymology on the testimony of Valerius Maximus who states she was the Juno of Veii. The sacred geese of the Capitol were lodged in her temple: as they are recorded in the episode of the Gallic siege (ca. 396-390 BC) by Livy, the temple should have existed before Furius's dedication.[69] Basanoff considers her to go back to the regal period: she would be the Sabine Juno who arrived at Rome through Cures. At Cures she was the tutelary deity of the military chief: as such she is never to be found among Latins. This new quality is apparent in the location of her fanum, her name, her role: 1. her altar is located in the regia of Titus Tatius; 2. Moneta is, from monere, the Adviser: like Egeria with Numa (Tatius's son in law) she is associated to a Sabine king; 3. In Dionysius of Halicarnassus the altar-tables of the curiae are consecrated to Juno Curitis to justify the false etymology of Curitis from curiae: the tables would assure the presence of the tutelary numen of the king as an adviser within each curia, as the epithet itself implies.[70] It can be assumed thence that Juno Moneta intervenes under warlike circumstances as associated to the sacral power of the king.

Juno Regina

Juno Regina is perhaps the epithet most fraught with questions. While some scholars maintain she was known as such at Rome since the most ancient times as paredra of Jupiter in the Capitoline Triad[71] others think she is a new acquisition introduced to Rome after her evocatio from Veii.[72]

Palmer[73] thinks she is to be identified with Juno Populona of later inscriptions,[74] a political and military poliadic deity who had in fact a place in the Capitoline temple and was intended to represent the Regina of the king. The date of her introduction, though ancient, would be uncertain; she should perhaps be identified with Hera Basilea or as the queen of Jupiter Rex. The actual epithet Regina could though come from Veii. At Rome this epithet may have been applied to a Juno other than that of the temple on the Aventine built to lodge the evocated Veian Juno as the rex sacrorum and his wife-queen were to offer a monthly sacrifice to Juno in the Regia. This might imply that the prerepublican Juno was royal.

J. Gagé dismisses these assumptions as groundless speculations as no Jupiter Rex is attested and in accord with Roe D'Albret stresses that at Rome no presence of a Juno Regina is mentioned before Marcus Furius Camillus, while she is attested in many Etruscan and Latin towns. Before that time her Roman equivalent was Juno Moneta. Marcel Renard for his part considers her an ancient Roman figure since the title of the Veian Juno expresses a cultic reality that is close to and indeed presupposes the existence at Rome of an analogous character: as a rule it is the presence of an original local figure that may allow the introduction of the new one through evocatio. He agrees with Dumezil that we ignore whether the translation of the epithet is exhaustive and what Etruscan notion corresponded to the name Regina which itself is certainly an Italic title.[75] This is the only instance of evocatio recorded by the annalistic tradition.[76] However Renard considers Macrobius's authority reliable in his long list of evocationes[77] on the grounds of an archaeological find at Isaura. Roe D'Albret underlines the role played by Camillus and sees a personal link between the deity and her magistrate. Similarly Dumezil has remarked the link of Camillus with Mater Matuta. In his relationship to the goddess he takes the place of the king of Veii.[78] Camillus's devotion to female deities Mater Matuta and Fortuna and his contemporary vow of a new temple to both Matuta and Iuno Regina hint to a degree of identity between them: this assumption has by chance been supported by the discovery at Pyrgi of a bronze lamella which mentions together Uni and Thesan, the Etruscan Juno and Aurora, i.e. Mater Matuta.[79] One can then suppose Camillus's simultaneous vow of the temples of the two goddesses should be seen in the light of their intrinsic association. Octavianus will repeat the same translation with the statue of the Juno of Perusia in consequence of a dream[80]

The fact that a goddess evoked in war and for political reasons receive the homage of women and that women continue to have a role in her cult is explained by Palmer[81] as a foreign cult of feminine sexuality of Etruscan derivation. The persistence of a female presence in her cult through the centuries down to the lectisternium of 217 BC, when the matronae collected money for the service,[82] and to the times of Augustus during the ludi saeculares in the sacrifices to Capitoline Juno are proof of the resilience of this foreign tradition.[83][84]

Gagé and D'Albret remark an accentuation of the matronal aspect of Juno Regina that led her to be the most matronal of the Roman goddesses by the time of the end of the republic. This fact raises the question of understanding why she was able of attracting the devotion of the matronae. Gagé traces back the phenomenon to the nature of the cult rendered to the Juno Regina of the Aventine in which Camillus played a role in person. The original devotion of the matronae was directed to Fortuna. Camillus was devout to her and to Matuta, both matronal deities. When he brought Juno Regina from Veii the Roman women were already acquainted with many Junos, while the ancient rites of Fortuna were falling off. Camillus would have then have made a political use of the cult of Juno Regina to subdue the social conflicts of his times by attribuing to her the role of primordial mother.[85]

Juno Regina had two temples (aedes) in Rome. The one dedicated by Furius Camillus in 392 BC stood on the Aventine: it lodged the wooden statue of the Juno transvected from Veii.[86] It is mentioned several times by Livy in connexion with sacrifices offered in atonement of prodigia. It was restored by Augustus.[87] Two inscriptions found near the church of S. Sabina indicate the approximate site of the temple, which corresponds with its place in the lustral procession of 207 BC,[88] near the upper end of the Clivus Publicius. The day of the dedication and of her festival was September 1.

Another temple stood near the circus Flaminius, vowed by consul Marcus Aemilius Lepdius in 187 BC during the war against the Ligures and dedicated by himself as censor in 179[89] on December 23.[90] It was connected by a porch with a temple of Fortuna[91] perhaps that of Fortuna Equestris. Its probable site according to Platner is just south of the porticus Pompeiana on the west end of circus Flaminius.[92]

The Juno Cealestis of Carthage Tanit was evoked according to Macrobius. She did not receive a temple in Rome: presumably her image was deposited in another temple of Juno (Moneta or Regina) and later transferred to the Colonia Junonia founded by Caius Gracchus.[93] The goddess was once again transferred to Rome by emperor Elagabalus.

Juno in the Capitoline triad

The first mention of a Capitoline triad refers to the Capitolium Vetus.[94] The only ancient source who refers to the association of this divine triad in Greece is Pausanias X 5, 1-2, who relates its existence at the Φωκικόν in Phocis.[95] The Capitoline triad poses difficult interpretative problems. It looks peculiarly Roman, since there is no sure document of its existence elsewhere either in Latium or Etruria.[96] A direct Greek influence is possible but it would be also plausible to consider it a local creation.[97][98] Dumezil advanced the hypothesis it could be an ideological construction of the Tarquins to oppose new Latin nationalism, as it included the three gods that in the Iliad are enemies of Troy.[99] It is probable Latins had already accepted the legend of Aeneas as their ancestor. Among ancient sources[100] indeed Servius states that according to the Etrusca Disciplina towns should have the three temples of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva at the end of three roads leading to three gates. Vitruvius writes that the temples of these three gods should be located on the most elevated site, isolated from the other.To his Etruscan founders the meaning of this triad might have been related to peculiarly Etruscan ideas on the association of the three gods with the birth of Herakles and the siege of Troy, in which Minerva plays a decisive role as a goddess of destiny along with the sovereign couple Uni Tinia.[101]

The Junos of Latium

The cults of the Italic Junos reflected remarkable theological complexes: regality, military protection and fertility.

In Latium are relatively well known the instances of Tibur, Falerii, Laurentum and Lanuvium.

At Tibur and Falerii their sacerdos was a male, called pontifex sacrarius, fact that has been seen as a proof of the relevance of the goddess to the whole society. In both towns she was known as Curitis, the spearholder, an armed protectress.[102] The martial aspect of these Junos is conspicuous, quite as that of fecundity and regality: the last two look strictly interconnected: fertility guaranteed the survival of the community, peaceful and armed. Iuno Curitis is also the tutelary goddess of the curiae and of the new brides, whose hair was combed with the spear called caelibataris hasta as in Rome. In her annaual rites at Falerii youths and maiden clad in white bore in procession gifts to the goddess whose image was escorted by her priestesses. The idea of purity and virginity is stressed in Ovid's description. A she goat is sacrificed to her after a ritual hunting. She is then the patroness of the young soldiers and of brides.[103]

At Lanuvium the goddes is known under the epithet Seispes Mater Regina.[104] The titles themselves are a theological definition: she was a sovereign goddess, a martial goddess and a fertility goddess.[105] Hence her flamen was chosen by the highest local magistrate, the dictator, and since 388 BC the Roman consuls were required to offer sacrifices to her.[106] Her sanctuary was famous, rich and powerful.

Her cult included the annual feeding of a sacred snake with barley cakes by virgin maidens. The snake dwelt in a deep cavern within the precinct of the temple on the arx of the city: the maidens approached the lair blindfolded. The snake was supposed to feed only on the cakes offered by chaste girls. The rite was aimed at ensuring agricultural fertility.[107] The site of the temple as well as the presence of the snake show she was the tutelary goddess of the city, as Athena at Athens and Hera at Argos.[108] The motive of the snake of the palace goddess guardian of the city is shared by Iuno Seispes with Athena as well as its periodic feeding.[109] This religious pattern moreover includes armour, goatskin dress, sacred birds and a concern with virginity in cult. Virginity is connected to regality: the existence and welfare of the community was protected by virgin goddesses or the virgin attendants of a goddess.[110] This theme shows a connexion with the fundamental theological character of Iuno, that of incarnating vital force: virginity is the condition of unspoilt, unspent vital energy that can ensure communion with nature and its rhythm, symbolised in the fire of Vesta. It is a decisive factor to ensure the safety of the community and the growth of crops. The role of Iuno is at the crossing point of civil and natural life, expressing their interdependence.[111]

At Laurentum she was known as Kalendaris Iuno and was honoured as such ritually at the kalendae of each month from March to December, i.e. the months of the prenuman ten month year, fact which is a testimony to the antiquity of the custom.[112]

A Greek influence in their cults looks probable.[113]

After the definitive subjugation of the Latin League in 338 BC the Romans required as a condition of peace the condominium of the Roman people on the sanctuary and the sacred grove of Juno Seispes in Lanuvium, while bestowing Roman citizenry on the Lanuvins.[114] Consequently the prodigia happened in her temple were referred to Rome and accordingly expiated there. Many occurred during the presence of Hannibal in Italy. At the time of Cicero Milo, dictator, highest magistrate of Lanuvium, resided in Rome. When he met Clodius near Bovillae and his slaves murdered the politician, he was on his way to Lanuvium in order to nominate the flamen of Juno Seispes.[115] Perhaps the Romans were not completely satisfied of this solution as in 194 BC consul C. Cornelius Cethegus erected a temple to the Juno Sospita of Lanuvium in the Forum Holitorium (vowed three years earlier in a war with the Galli Insubri):[116] in it the goddess was honoured in martial effigy.

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Juno and Jupiter

The divine couple received from Greece its matrimonial implications, thence bestowing on Juno the role of tutelary goddess of marriage (Juno Pronuba).

However the couple itself cannot be reduced to a Greek apport. The association of Juno and Jupiter is of the most ancient Latin theology.[128] Praeneste offers a glimpse into original Latin mythology: the local goddess Fortuna is represented as milking two infants, one male and one female, namely Jove (Jupiter) and Juno.[129] It seems fairly safe to assume that from the earliest time they were identified by names and since they got names they never changed them through the course of history: they were called Jupiter and Juno and these gods were the most ancient deities of every Latin town. Praeneste has preserved divine filiation and infancy as the sovereign god and his paredra Juno have a mother who is the primordial goddess Fortuna Primigenia.[130] Many terracotta statuettes have been discovered which represent a woman with a child: one of them represents exactly the scene described by Cicero of a woman with two children of different sex who touch her breast. Two of the votive inscriptions to Fortuna associate her and Jupiter: " Fortunae Iovi puero..." and "Fortunae Iovis puero..."[131]

However in 1882 M. R. Mowat published an inscription in which Fortuna is called daughter of Jupiter, raising new questions and opening new perspectives in the theology of Latin gods.[132][133] Dumezil has elaborated an interpretative theory according to which this aporia would be an intrinsic, fundamental feature of Indoeuropean deities of the primordial and sovereign level, as it finds a parallel in Vedic religion.[134] The contradiction would put Fortuna both at the origin of time and into its ensuing diachronic process: it is the comparison offered by Vedic deity Aditi, the Not-Bound or Enemy of Bondage, that shows that there is no question of choosing one of the two apparent options: as the mother of the Aditya she has the same type of relationship with one of his sons, Dakṣa, the minor sovereign. who represents the Creative Energy, being at the same time his mother and daughter, as is true for the whole group of sovereign gods to which she belongs.[135] Moreover Aditi is thus one of the heirs (along with Savitr) of the opening god of the Indoiranians, as she is represented with her head on her two sides, with the two faces looking opposite directions.[136] The mother of the sovereign gods has thence two solidal but distinct modalities of duplicity, i.e. of having two foreheads and a double position in the genealogy. A. Brelich has interpreted this theology as the basic opposition between the primordial absence of order (chaos) and the organisation of the cosmos.[137]

Juno and Janus

The relationship of the female sovereign deity with the god of beginnings and passages is reflected mainly in their association with the kalendae of every month, which belong to both, and in the festival of the Sororium Tigillum (better known as Tigillum Sororium) of October 1.

Janus as gatekeeper of the gates connecting Heaven and Earth and guardian of all passages is particularly related to time and motion. He holds the first place in ritual invocations and prayers, in order to ensure the communication between the worshipper and the gods. He enjoys the privilege of receiving the first sacrifice of the new year, which is offered by the rex on the day of the Agonium of January as well as at the kalenade of each month: These rites show he is considered the patron of the cosmic year. Ovid in his Fasti has Janus say that he is the original Chaos and also the first era of the world, which got organised only afterwards. He preserves a tutelary function on this universe as the gatekeeper of Heaven. His nature, qualities and role are reflected in the myth of him being the first to reign in Latium, on the banks of the Tiber, and there receiving god Saturn, in the age when the Earth still could bear the gods.[138] The theology of Janus is also presented in the carmen Saliare.[139] According to Johannes Lydus the Etruscans called him Heaven.[140] His epithets are numerous[141] Iunonius is particularly relevant, as the god of the kalendae who cooperates with and is the source of the youthful vigour of Juno in the birth of the new lunar month.[142] His other epithet Consivius hints to his role in the generative function.[143]

The role of the two gods at the kalendae of every month is that of presiding over the birth of the new moon. Janus and Juno cooperate as the first looks after the passage from the previous to the ensuing month while the second helps it through the strength of her vitality. The rites of the kalendae included the invocations to Juno Covella, giving the number of days to the nonae, a sacrifice to Janus by the rex sacrorum and the pontifex minor at the curia Calabra and one to Juno by the regina sacrorum in the Regia: originally when the month was still lunar the pontifex minor had the task of signalling the appearance of the new moon. While the meaning of the epithet Covella is unknown and debated,[144] that of the rituals is clear as the divine couple is supposed to oversee, protect and help the moon during the particularly dangerous time of her darkness and her labours: the role of Juno Covella is hence the same as that of Lucina for women during parturition. The association of the two gods is reflected on the human level at the difficult time of labours as is apparent in the custom of putting a key, symbol of Janus, in the hand of the woman with the aim of ensuring an easy delivery, while she had to invoke Juno Lucina.[145] At the nonae Caprotinae similarly Juno had the function of aiding and strengthening the moon as the nocturnal light, at the time when her force was supposed to be at its lowest, after the Summer solstice.[146]

The Tigillum Sororium was a rite (sacrum) of the gens Horatia and later of the State. In it Janus Curiatius was associated to Juno Sororia: they had their altars on opposite sides of the alley behind the Tigillum Sororium. Physically this consisted of a beam spanning the space over two posts. It was kept in good condition down to the time of Livy at public expenses.[147] According to tradition it was a rite of purification that served at the expiation of Marcus Horatius who had murdered his own sister when he saw her mourning the death of her betrothed Curiatius. Dumézil has shown in his Les Horaces et les Curiaces[148] that this story is in fact the historical transcription of rites of reintegration into civil life of the young warriors, in the myth symbolised by the hero, freed from their furor (wrath), indispensable at war but dangerous in social life. What is known of the rites of October 1 shows at Rome the legend has been used as an aetiological myth for the yearly purification ceremonies which allowed the desacralisation of soldiers at the end of the warring season, i.e. their cleansing from the religious pollution contracted at war. The story finds parallels in Irish and Indian mythologies. These rites took place in October, month that at Rome saw the celebration of the end of the yearly military activity. Janus would then the patron of the feria as god of transitions, Juno for her affinities to Janus, especially on the day of the kalendae. It is also possible though that she took part as the tutelary goddess of young people, the iuniores, etymologically identical to her.[149] Modern scholars are divided on the interpretation of J. Curiatius and J. Sororia. Renard citing Capdeville opinates that the wisest choice is to adhere to tradition and consider the legend itself as the source of the epithts.[150][151]

M. Renard advanced the view that Janus and not Juppiter was the original paredra or consort of Juno, on the grounds of their many common features, functions and appearance in myth or rites as is shown by their cross coupled epithets Janus Curiatius and Juno Sororia: Janus shares the epithet of Juno Curitis and Juno the epithet Janus Geminus, as sororius means paired, double.[152] Renard's theory has been rejected by G. Capdeville as not being in accord with the level of sovereign gods in Dumezil's trifunctional structure. The theology of Janus would show features typically belonging to the order of the gods of the beginning. In Capdeville's view it is only natural that a god of beginnings and a sovereign mother deity have common features, as all births can be seen as beginnings, Juno is invoked by deliverers, who by custom hold a key, symbol of Janus.[153]

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Juno and Genius

The view that Juno was the feminine counterpart to Genius, i.e. that as men possess a tutelary entity or double named genius, so women have their own one named juno, has been maintained by many scholars, lastly Kurt Latte.[171] In the past it has also been argued that goddess Juno herself would be the issue of a process of abstraction from the individual junos of every woman.[172] According to Georg Wissowa and K. Latte Genius (from the root gen-, whence gigno bear or be born, archaic also geno) would design the specific virile generative potency, as opposed to feminine nature, reflected in conception and delivery, under the tutelage of Juno Lucina. Such an interpretation has been critically reviewed by Walter F. Otto[173]

While there are some correspondences between the ideas about genius and juno, especially in the imperial age, the relevant documentation is rather late (Tibullus mentions it first).[174] Dumezil also remarks from these passages one could infer every woman has a Venus too. As proof of the antiquity of the concept of a juno of women homologous to the genius is generally cited the instance of the Juno Deae Diae, to whom two sheep are sacrificed in the rite of the Arvals, in contrast to two cows sacrificed to the goddess herself. However both G. Wissowa and K. Latte allow that the ritual could have undergone modernising at the time of the augustan restoration.[175] While the concept of a Juno of goddesses is not attested in the inscriptions of 58 BC from Furfo,[176] that of a Genius of gods is,[177] and even of a Genius of a goddess, Victoria. On this point it looks remarkable that also in Martianus Capella 's division of Heaven a Juno Hospitae Genius is mentioned in region IX, and not a Juno: the sex of this Genius is feminine.[178] See section below for details.

Romans believed the genius of somebody was an entity that embodied his essential character, personality, and also originally his vital, generative force and raison d' être. However the genius had no direct relationship with sex, at least in classical time conceptions, even though the nuptial bed was named lectus genialis in honour of the Genius and brides on the day of marriage invoked the genius of their grooms.[179] This seems to hint to a significance of the Genius as the propagative spirit of the gens, of whom every human individual is an incarnation:[180] Censorinus states: "Genius is the god under whose tutelage everyone is born and lives on",[181] and that "many ancient authors, among whom Granius Flaccus in his De Indigitamentis, maintain that he is one and the same with the Lar", meaning the Lar Familiaris. Festus calls him "a god endowed with the power of doing everything", then citing an Aufustius: "Genius is the son of the gods and the parent of men, from whom men receive life. Thence is he named my genius, because he begot me". Festus's quotation goes on saying: "Other think he is the special god of every place", a notion that reflect a different idea.[182] In classic age literature and iconography he is often represented as a snake, that may appear in the conjugal bed, this conception being perhaps the issue of a Greek influence. It was easy for the Roman concept of Genius to expand annexing other similar religious figures as the Lares and the Greek δαίμων αγαθός.[183][184]

The genius was believed to be associated with the forehead of each man, while goddess Juno, not the juno of every woman, was supposed to have under her jurisdiction the eyebrows of women[185] or to be the tutelary goddess of the eyebrows of everybody, irrespective of one's sex.[186][187]

Heries Junonis

Among the female entities that in the pontifical ritual invocations accompanied the naming of gods, Juno was associated to Heries, etymologically related to furia, fundo, which she shared with Mars.[188]

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From: Wiki
Juno, or to spell it the Latin way, Iuno, is the Roman Great Goddess, the Queen of the Gods, Sky-Goddess, Protectress of Women, Mother of Mars, Wife of Jupiter, She of the many epithets and a long long history of worship in Rome. She was one of the Capitoline Triad, with Jupiter and Minerva, Who were considered the three main Deities of Rome; She was widely worshipped among the Latins, and Her cult was also important among the Etruscans, who called Her Uni or Cupra. She was an especial protectress of women in marriage and childbirth, and many of Her epithets relate to that aspect, but She could also have a more civic or martial character as protectress of the Roman people.

Juno's name may derive from an Indo-European root with connotations of vitality and youth, and if so would suggest that Her aspect as Birth-Goddess is one of Her oldest. Alternatively, Her name may come from the Etruscan Uni, which means "She Who Gives", and which would refer to Her capacity as a benevolent Goddess of abundance who answers the prayers of those in need.

As each man was believed to have a protective guardian spirit called a genius, so each woman had one called a juno. These guardian spirits (in the plural, junones) may have originally been the ghosts of the ancestors who were believed to watch over and protect their descendents. They were usually represented as snakes (probably relating to the chthonic or underworld aspect of the Dead), and were given offerings on the individual's birthday at the household altar.

The first days of each Roman month, the calends, were sacred to Juno, as was the entire month of June, which is still named for Her. Five cities in Latium (the region of the Latin tribe) also named a month for Her: Aricia, on the Via Appia; Lanuvium, where She was worshipped as Juno Sospita ("Juno the Saviouress"), Praeneste (modern Palestrina), Tibur (modern Tivoli, the resort town of Rome), and Laurentum, located between Lavinium and Ostia on the coast. And as Juno is the Roman Goddess of Marriage, it is no coincidence that June is still considered the proper month for weddings.

Like Jupiter, Juno was believed to have the ability to throw thunderbolts.

Also called: Junonis or Iuno.

Here, then, is the index for as many of Her aspects as I could find, treated individually; they range from simply descriptive titles such as Conciliatrix that may not have had a use in Her cult, to the more important and unusual facets of Her like Curitis, all the way to separate Goddesses who were assimilated to or equated with Juno, such as the Dea Caelestis of Carthage. Juno, or to spell it the Latin way, Iuno, is the Roman Great Goddess, the Queen of the Gods, Sky-Goddess, Protectress of Women, Mother of Mars, Wife of Jupiter, She of the many epithets and a long long history of worship in Rome. She was one of the Capitoline Triad, with Jupiter and Minerva, Who were considered the three main Deities of Rome; She was widely worshipped among the Latins, and Her cult was also important among the Etruscans, who called Her Uni or Cupra. She was an especial protectress of women in marriage and childbirth, and many of Her epithets relate to that aspect, but She could also have a more civic or martial character as protectress of the Roman people.

Juno's name may derive from an Indo-European root with connotations of vitality and youth, and if so would suggest that Her aspect as Birth-Goddess is one of Her oldest. Alternatively, Her name may come from the Etruscan Uni, which means "She Who Gives", and which would refer to Her capacity as a benevolent Goddess of abundance who answers the prayers of those in need.

As each man was believed to have a protective guardian spirit called a genius, so each woman had one called a juno. These guardian spirits (in the plural, junones) may have originally been the ghosts of the ancestors who were believed to watch over and protect their descendents. They were usually represented as snakes (probably relating to the chthonic or underworld aspect of the Dead), and were given offerings on the individual's birthday at the household altar.

The first days of each Roman month, the calends, were sacred to Juno, as was the entire month of June, which is still named for Her. Five cities in Latium (the region of the Latin tribe) also named a month for Her: Aricia, on the Via Appia; Lanuvium, where She was worshipped as Juno Sospita ("Juno the Saviouress"), Praeneste (modern Palestrina), Tibur (modern Tivoli, the resort town of Rome), and Laurentum, located between Lavinium and Ostia on the coast. And as Juno is the Roman Goddess of Marriage, it is no coincidence that June is still considered the proper month for weddings.

Like Jupiter, Juno was believed to have the ability to throw thunderbolts.

Also called: Junonis or Iuno.

Here, then, is the index for as many of Her aspects as I could find, treated individually; they range from simply descriptive titles such as Conciliatrix that may not have had a use in Her cult, to the more important and unusual facets of Her like Curitis, all the way to separate Goddesses who were assimilated to or equated with Juno, such as the Dea Caelestis of Carthage.

From: here

Also see:

Matronalia summary (short)
Matronalia - Nova Roma article
Matronalia - wiki
LacusCurtius • Temple of Juno Moneta
LacusCurtius • Temple of Juno Sospita
LacusCurtius • Temples of Juno Regina
LacusCurtius • Temple of Juno Lucina
LacusCurtius • Temple of Juno Sospita
Juno Moneta
Article
Some epithets listed
Juno, Queen of the Gods
Article

Hera Ἥρα {Goddess of the Week}

Articles about various aspects and epithets:
Abeona, Adiona, Caelestis, Caprotina, Cuba, Cunina, Cupra, Curiatia, Curitis, Dea Caelestis, Educa, Edulica, Empanada, Februtis, Juga, Jugalis, Lucetia, Lucina, Martialis, Moneta, Opigena, Panda, Perusina, Potina, Quiritis, Regina, Rumina, Supra, Uni

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