Saturday, December 19, 2015

Manjusri (Mañjuśrī) - मञ्जुश्री





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Manjusri, which means Gentle Glory or Sweet Splendor, the personification of Transcendent Wisdom, and one of the two most important Bodhisattvas of Mahayana Buddhism, is the first Bodhisattva mentioned in the Mahayana scriptures. In fact, his name occurs frequently in various sutras, and in the Lotus Sutra it is stated that he has trained and disciplined many Bodhisattvas.

According to Chinese tradition, in order to bring Manjusri into manifestation the Buddha caused a golden ray to emanate from his forehead This ray pierced a jambu tree which grew from the foundation of the most sacred Buddhist mountain in China, now called Wu Tai Shan. A lotus sprang from the tree and from the interior of the flower was born the prince of sages, also called the Prince Royal of the Buddha's realm. He was born without father and mother and was thus free from the pollution of the common world. In his right hand he brandishes the flaming sword, which cleaves asunder the clouds of ignorance. In his left hand he holds a lotus, on the top of which rests the Prajnaparamita, the Treatise on Transcendent Wisdom. The sword also symbolizes his perfect wisdom and his intellect which penetrates to the deepest recesses of Buddhist thought, dispelling doubts which otherwise cannot be dispelled.

He is also sometimes called Manjugosha, the "Gentle Voiced One." Manju meaning soft indicates that his continuum of life has become softened by his wisdom which cuts through distress-causing hindrances to liberation from samsara to be cut and removes the obstructions barring the way to infinite knowledge or omniscience. Gosha means "chanting" or "intonation" and refers to Manjusri's perfect vocalization and creative communication ability. By writing or intoning the mantra Namo Guru Manjugoshaya the monks in Tibet have hailed him as the "Lamp of Wisdom and Supernatural Power" who destroys falsehood and ignorance and removes them from the minds of all beings.

According to tradition in China the first day of the year is dedicated to Manjusri, who is considered by some to be the god of agriculture, by others the celestial architect who is believed to have inspired with his divine intelligence those who have been active in propagating the Buddha-Dharma.

Some devotees consider him the god of science and believe when he preaches the Law that every demon is subjugated and every error that might deceive humankind is dissipated. It is considered that Padma Sambhava, the eighth century founder of Tibetan Buddhism, as well as Tsongkhapa, the founder of the Gelugpa sect, were manifestations of this great Bodhisattva. In Mahayana Buddhism wisdom and compassion are regarded as equally important, but in the early years greater emphasis was placed on wisdom. Therefore, in early Mahayana the hand of wisdom was considered to be the foremost Bodhisattva.

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For the rest, see: HERE
The names Mañjughoṣa and Mañjuśrī are synonyms for the same figure, although there are sometimes slight iconographic differences between them in Buddhist art. In Sanskrit mañju means: "beautiful, lovely, charming, pleasent, sweet"; while ghoṣa means "voice", while śrī has a range of meanings taking in "light, lustre, radiance; properity, welfare, good fortune, success, auspciousness; high rank, royalty". So Mañjughoṣa can mean Beautiful Speech, and Mañjuśrī might be translated as Lovely Prince, or Beautiful Radiance, etc.

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Seed Syllable
Seed syllable of manjusri/manjughosa 'dhih', the perfection of wisdom, in the Siddham script
Mañjuśrī 's seed syllable is dhīḥ, the seed syllable of perfect wisdom which he shares with Prajñāpāramita.

Mantra
oṃ a ra pa ca na dhīḥ

For more info, see: HERE
Manjushri is the Bodhisattva of Wisdom and Knowledge. He is actually the male embodiment of Perfection of wisdom and is second in importance only to Avalokiteshvara in Mahayana tradition. Manjushri's name, often translated as "Beautiful Glory", may equally accurately be translated as "Beautiful Goddess". In the Tantric understanding, Manjushri is recognized as fully enlightened Buddha. He manifests in highly esoteric forms, such as Yamantaka or Vajrabhairava and Dharmadhatu Vagishvara Manjushri also embodies the full enlightenment of Vairochana and manifests the entire Dharma, or teachings of Buddhism. Manjushri ensures that human will gain knowledge and insights provided have faith in the Dharma. He cleaves the clouds of ignorance with wisdom and brings light into darkness. This darkness has a double meaning, and is thus also spiritual darkness and ignorance.

Manjushri is the patron deity of Nepalese Buddhism. He is identified with the primordial Buddha Svayambhu and is the root teacher of Nepalese Buddhist Chakrasamvara practice. Moreover the cult of Manjushri is popular in Northern Buddhist countries. They conceived him in various forms and worshipped him with various mantras. Those, who could not form any conception of him according to Tantric rites, attained perfection only muttering his numerous mantras; he is believed to have been a wandering ascetic and the Gandavyuha Sutra records the tradition that he came out of Pratishthanakutagara and, accompanied by Bodhisattvas of his status and other divinities, led his journey to Dakshinapatha. Further it is also mentioned in the text about an assembly at Jetavana in which Manjushri, Samantabhadra, five thousand Bodhisattvas and Mahashravakas are said to have been present along with Buddha. A Chinese tradition records that Gautama Buddha informed Manjushri of his duty to turn the Wheel of Law for the salvation of the Chinese and choose Panchashira (five-peaked) mountain in Shan-si province in China as his place of manifestation. The association of Manjushri with China is also mentioned in the Svayambhu Purana in which it is mentioned that Manjushri was a great saint with many disciples and followers. He came from mount Panchashira, which was his abode, to Svayambhunath Kshetra in order to pay his respect to Adi Buddha who had manifested himself as a flame of fire on a mountain in lake Kalihrada, which is now the Nepal Valley. Manjushri erected a temple over the flame of fire and on a hillock and nearby he made his own abode, and also a vihara still known as the Manjupattana, for his disciples. He did many pious deeds there. He returned home after putting everything in proper order and soon attained the divine form of a Bodhisattva, leaving his mundane body behind. This tradition has led some scholars to propound the view that Manjushri was a historical character who brought civilization to Nepal from China. Arya- Manjusri-Mulakalpa and Sadhanamala describe a number of distinctive forms of the god for worship.

From: here
Manjushri (Tibetan: Jampalyang, Jampaiyang (rje btsun 'jam pa'i dbyangs) is a popular Buddhist figure commonly represented in art. He first arises from the Mahayana Sutra literature of Northern Buddhism where he is regarded as a bodhisattva - the bodhisattva of wisdom. In the Tantric literature of Northern Buddhism he is seen as a completely enlightened Buddha with a great number of manifestations and appearances spanning all four classes of Tantra, simple and complex in form. The mandala of Dharmadhatu Vagishvara presents a large number of appearances both peaceful and wrathful - twenty-three in number not counting the accompanying retinue figures. The Manjushri Lhakang is Sakya, Tibet, depicts many different forms of Manjushri. The early text known as the One Hundred Sadhanas, or Bari Gyatsa in brief, describes fifteen forms of Manjushri. The Ocean of Sadhanas text describes twenty-five forms.

From: here
Mañjuśrī (Skt: मञ्जुश्री) is a bodhisattva associated with transcendent wisdom (Skt. prajñā) in Mahāyāna Buddhism. In Esoteric Buddhism he is also taken as a meditational deity. The Sanskrit name Mañjuśrī can be translated as "Gentle Glory".[1] Mañjuśrī is also known by the fuller Sanskrit name of Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta.[2]

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Mañjuśrī is depicted as a male bodhisattva wielding a flaming sword in his right hand, representing the realization of transcendent wisdom which cuts down ignorance and duality. The scripture supported by the lotus held in his left hand is a Prajñāpāramitā sūtra, representing his attainment of ultimate realization from the blossoming of wisdom. Mañjuśrī is often depicted as riding on a blue lion, or sitting on the skin of a lion. This represents the use of wisdom to tame the mind, which is compared to riding or subduing a ferocious lion.

He is one of the Four Great Bodhisattvas of Chinese Buddhism, the other three being: Bodhisattva Kṣitigarbha, Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara, and Bodhisattva Samantabhadra. In China, he is often paired with Bodhisattva Samantabhadra.

In Tibetan Buddhism Manjushri is sometimes depicted in a trinity with Avalokiteśvara (Tib. Chenrazig) and Vajrapāṇi (Tib. Channa Dorje).

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From: Wiki

Also see:

Mediation/poem for him
Manjushri at Khandro Net
Manjushri (Bodhisattva)

Manjusri Role and Significance, Parts 1 & 2: Anthony Tribe (Dharmachari Anandajyoti)
Manjusri - Origins, Rôle and Significance, Part 3: Anthony Tribe (Dh Anandajyoti)

Manjusri and the Cult of the Celestial Bodhisattvas


Buddhist Deity: Manjushri Main Page (links to tons of images)

A Concert of Names of Manjushri
(English translation of the Manjusrinamasamgiti) -- lists tons of names and descriptors
Google Book preview: Chanting the names of Mañjuśrī: the Mañjuśrī-nāma-saṃgīti, Sanskrit and Tibetan texts

Praise to the Intelligent One (Manjushri Prayer, Gang-loma)


Prayer to Manjushri
Manjushri (The most profound wisdom)
Monju Bosatsu (Bodhisattva)
Another site
Manjushri: The Young Prince of Wisdom
Manjusri Bodhisattva -- images

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fw8NTMRgDso

ETA:
Dissertation:
A View of Manjusri - Wisdom and its Crown Prince in Pala Period India (Direct PDF download)

1 comment:

  1. For your information, in Vietnam, Japan, China and Korea, Manjusri is also known as a God of Cat Zodiac. For example, Manjusri is a God Guard of people who born in 1987.

    Thank you for your information, i very enjoy reading it. Have a good day!

    ReplyDelete